Threat Intelligence 101

Essentials of Cyber Crime Investigation

Posted: 5th February 2024
By: Esteban Borges

When cyber criminals strike, how do investigators respond? Cyber crime investigation involves skilled professionals from agencies like the FBI, NSA, Secret Service, and others, using digital forensics to track, analyze, and dismantle types of cyber crime and cyber threats. According to a 2022 Statista study, India leads globally with 68% of its internet users having encountered cybercrime, followed closely by the United States at 49%. This data underscores the widespread nature of online security threats.

Amidst these rising challenges, it's projected that within the next five years, the cost of cybercrime will surge by 15%, reaching an estimated $10.5 trillion by 2025. This anticipated increase not only highlights the escalating financial impact but also emphasizes the growing urgency for robust cybersecurity measures.

In this article, we will guide you through the processes and challenges of these investigations, providing a closer look at the strategies and collaborations that make them possible, without giving away the forthcoming nuanced exploration.

Key Takeaways

  • Cyber crime investigations are critical in modern digital security, involving multiple entities like the FBI and Secret Service, who apply traditional techniques and digital forensics to tackle crimes like hacking, phishing, and data breaches.
  • Effective cyber crime investigation requires public-private collaboration and international cooperation to overcome challenges like jurisdictional issues and the continuous evolution of technology used by cyber criminals.
  • Prevention and response strategies are essential to mitigate cyber crime risks, including implementing security measures, developing incident response plans, educating stakeholders, and maintaining robust cyber crime reporting platforms like the IC3.

Deciphering Cyber Crime Investigations

Deciphering Cyber Crime Investigations

Cyber crime investigations play a vital role in the modern world, addressing emerging threats and helping to maintain the safety of our digital spaces. They encompass the identification, examination, and legal action against a broad spectrum of illicit activities in the digital sphere, including:

  • Hacking
  • Phishing
  • Data breaches
  • Device fraud

In cybercrime investigation, professionals work tirelessly to combat these threats and protect individuals and organizations from potential harm Federal law enforcement agencies like the Secret Service and the FBI are at the forefront of these investigations, working tirelessly to combat cyber crime and foster a more secure digital environment. Law enforcement officers from these agencies play a crucial role in achieving this goal.

Grasping the intricacies of a cyber crime investigation process is fundamental. The journey begins with a thorough evaluation of the circumstances, identifying potential evidence, and securing relevant devices. Legal orders may be obtained to facilitate the investigation and garner additional information. These steps are critical in identifying and prosecuting transnational cyber criminals responsible for various cyber crimes.

Defining Cyber Crime Investigations

But what does a cyber crime investigation entail? In simple terms, it involves the process of:

  • Identifying, analyzing, and tracking digital evidence to uncover the perpetrators and their motives.
  • Learning about the case and assessing the situation.
  • Conducting the initial investigation.
  • Identifying potential evidence.
  • Securing devices.
  • Obtaining court orders.
  • Analyzing results with the prosecutor.

The investigation employs traditional investigative techniques, meticulous planning, information gathering, evidence processing, and the proper handling of digital evidence.

According to The US Department of Justice, in their 2001 publication ‘_Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement_’, electronic or digital evidence can be defined as: “Electronic evidence is information and data of investigative value that is stored on or transmitted by an electronic device”

The aim of these investigations is distinct. They aim to identify the source of the crime, gather evidence, and present that evidence in a manner suitable for court proceedings to prosecute the perpetrator. The complexity of cybercrimes, such as the large numbers and international jurisdictions involved, necessitates specialized techniques and tools for evidence collection and analysis.

Electronic crimes task forces play a crucial role in achieving these goals by fostering collaboration between law enforcement agencies and private sector entities, effectively combining resources and expertise to combat cybercrime.

The Investigation Process

Let’s examine the investigation process in detail. The preliminary procedures involve:

  • Evaluating the situation
  • Carrying out an initial inquiry
  • Identifying potential evidence
  • Securing devices
  • Obtaining requisite court orders
  • Thoroughly analyzing the gathered information
  • It’s akin to piecing together a complex puzzle, requiring meticulous attention to detail and analytical prowess.

The process also involves the use of specific tools and techniques. Digital forensics plays a crucial role in cyber crime investigations, collecting, preserving, and analyzing digital evidence. Methods used to identify malicious software involve malware detection tools such as anti-virus software, intrusion detection systems, and sandbox environments for dynamic malware analysis.

Research from the ENISA Threat Landscape 2023 – Malware report suggests that Android phones in China could be pre-loaded with applications that gather user data such as location, contact information, and personal profiles, even before the user engages with the device Financial transactions are meticulously examined using a range of tools and methods to detect any suspicious activities.

Challenges in Cyber Investigations

Cyber investigations involve multiple challenges. Jurisdictional issues, for instance, have a significant impact on cyber crime investigations as they determine the authority to investigate and prosecute the crime based on the location of the offenders, victims, and impacts of the cybercrime. In addition, the global nature of cyber crimes requires international cooperation, posing difficulties in identifying suspects, securing extradition, and choosing an appropriate jurisdiction.

Another challenge is the rapid evolution of technology. As technology evolves, so do the tactics and tools used by cyber criminals. This necessitates investigators to stay abreast of new technology developments and adjust their investigative techniques accordingly.

These complexities increase when dealing with transnational cyber criminals who operate across multiple countries.

Key Players in Cyber Crime Investigations

Key Players in Cyber Crime Investigations

Battling cyber crime is not an individual effort. It involves a range of entities, including law enforcement agencies, industry bodies, trade organizations, and security providers. The primary law enforcement agencies participating in these investigations are the FBI, Europol, Interpol, and national law enforcement agencies. These agencies work tirelessly to safeguard our digital world, employing their expertise to uncover and prosecute cyber criminals.

However, law enforcement alone is not enough to counter cyber crime. Collaboration is key. Public-private collaborations facilitate the development of legislation, enhance institutional responses to cyber threats, and ensure the sharing of information and resources. Moreover, international entities are collaborating to combat cyber crime through formal mechanisms such as bilateral, regional, and multilateral cybercrime treaties. This global cooperation is crucial to tackle the increasing and transnational nature of cybercrime.

Law Enforcement Agencies

Across the globe, various law enforcement agencies are engaged in cyber crime investigations. These include:

  • Europol
  • Interpol
  • The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • The UK National Crime Agency (NCA)
  • Australian Federal Police (AFP)
  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
  • German Federal Police (BKA)
  • French National Police (PNF)
  • Italian Postal and Communication Police (Polizia Postale e delle Comunicazioni)
  • Japanese National Police Agency (NPA)

In the United States, for example, the FBI focuses on cyber attacks and intrusions, while the Secret Service specializes in financial crimes related to cyberspace. In Europe, Europol and Interpol are the principal law enforcement agencies entrusted with cyber crime investigations. In Asia, organizations like ICHIP Kuala Lumpur and the UNODC offer specialized training to prosecutors, investigators, and judges, aimed at enhancing their proficiency in handling cybercrime cases.

Public-Private Collaboration

Public-private collaborations significantly contribute to the fight against cybercrime. These partnerships facilitate:

  • The sharing of cyber information and resources among professionals in law enforcement and private industry
  • The pooling of expertise
  • Sharing of data
  • Collaborative investigative endeavors

It’s a team effort, with each stakeholder bringing unique skills and perspectives to the table. Successful examples of this collaboration include the Cyber Fraud Task Forces, a result of collaboration between the Secret Service, other law enforcement agencies, and the private sector.

These partnerships contribute to the development of legislation in line with international standards, such as those set by the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime. Despite potential sectorial conflicts and the limited capabilities of law enforcement agencies, these collaborations have proven to be an effective strategy in combating cybercrime.

International Cooperation

Cybercrime is borderless, necessitating international cooperation. Through formal and informal agreements, bilateral, regional, and multilateral cybercrime treaties, countries collaborate to:

  • Investigate and prosecute cyber criminals
  • Share information and intelligence
  • Develop common standards and best practices
  • Enhance cybersecurity capabilities

This global cooperation is crucial in addressing crimes that transcend legal jurisdictions and international boundaries. Participating organizations in this international collaboration include:

  • Council of Europe
  • EC3

There are challenges, of course. The establishment of formal mechanisms such as treaties and compliance with international guidelines can be complex. However, the rewards of international cooperation in combating cyber crime far outweigh these challenges.

Investigative Tools and Techniques

Investigative Tools and Techniques

Probing into cyber crime requires the application of diverse tools and techniques. These range from:

  • Digital forensics, which involves the collection, preservation, and analysis of digital evidence
  • Tracking malicious software
  • Analyzing financial transactions
  • Each tool and technique plays a crucial role in uncovering the digital threads of cyber crimes.
  • Specific tools commonly used in digital forensics include:
  • Cellebrite
  • Magnet Axiom
  • Velociraptor
  • Wireshark
  • X-Ways Forensics
  • The Sleuth Kit
  • Autopsy
  • Digital Forensics Framework
  • Open Computer Forensics Architecture (OCFA)

These tools help investigators identify, analyze, and recover forensic data that can serve as digital evidence of a crime.

Digital Forensics

Digital forensics is like the DNA analysis of the cyber world, playing a pivotal role in investigating cyber crimes, preventing data breaches, and aiding law enforcement in locating perpetrators. It involves the identification, preservation, analysis, and documentation of digital evidence for use in court.

Electronic data such as computer documents, emails, text and instant messages, transactions, images, and internet histories from the devices involved in the crime are collected as part of digital evidence. Preserving this evidence involves safeguarding the device’s current state, properly shutting down the device, and duplicating all pertinent data storage devices to uphold evidence integrity.

The evidence is then analyzed using digital forensics methodologies, drive imaging, and comprehensive network analysis tools.

Tracking Malicious Software

Tracking malicious software, or malware, is a key technique in cyber crime investigations. It helps identify the source and distribution of malware, aiding in the identification and prosecution of cyber criminals. Techniques employed for monitoring malicious software include:

  • Digital forensics software such as EnCase, FTK, and Autopsy
  • Network analysis tools for monitoring network traffic
  • Malware detection methods to identify, block, and mitigate the detrimental impacts of malware.
  • The path of malware in a cyber attack is traced utilizing dynamic malware analysis in a sandbox environment and by conducting computer forensics investigations. This allows investigators to connect the dots, linking digital activities to physical evidence of criminal activity.

Analyzing Financial Transactions

Financial transaction analysis in cyber crime investigations is another vital tool. It encompasses the identification of fraudulent cyber activities, estimation of financial losses, and the use of various tools and methods to analyze suspicious financial transactions. Various methodologies are employed for this type of analysis, such as forensic analysis, transaction monitoring techniques, network analysis, machine learning, and data mining.

Financial transactions scrutinized in cyber crime investigations encompass trafficking of stolen financial data, money laundering, and other related cybercrimes.

Financial transaction analysis is utilized for tracking cyber criminals through various techniques including tracking Bitcoin transactions, employing supervised techniques with fraud prediction models, reviewing and analyzing financial transactions to identify potential fraud, leveraging blockchain analytics tools for investigation, and conducting cryptocurrency forensics on the blockchain.

As you can see, the financial services sector is a prime target for malicious actors. Learn how Recorded Future Threat Intelligence for Financial Services can help prevent cybercrime.

Cyber Threats and Common Cyber Crimes

Cyber Threats and Common Cyber Crimes Having explored the process and tools of cyber crime investigations, let’s now investigate some prevalent cyber threats and crimes.

These include identity theft, data breaches, and social media scams. Indicators of data breaches may include critical file changes, unusually slow internet or devices, obvious device tampering, locked user accounts, and unusual outbound activity.

Cyber criminals leverage social media to:

  • Capitalize on personal information for monetary benefits
  • Partake in cybercrime enabled by social media platform
  • Seek chances to infiltrate individuals’ accounts and networks.

Identity Theft and Fraud

Identity theft and fraud are prevalent cyber crimes that can have severe financial and reputational consequences for victims. To combat these crimes, digital risk protection solutions are essential. These solutions along with proper strategies help in identifying and mitigating risks associated with identity theft and fraud. The prevalent forms of identity theft and fraud in cyber crime include financial identity theft, medical identity theft, online identity theft, criminal identity theft, synthetic identity theft, and child identity theft. Cybercriminals employ a range of techniques for identity theft and online fraud, such as phishing, smishing, vishing, fake websites, dumpster diving, wireless hacking, ATM and payment fraud, pharming, and search engine phishing.

The procedures for conducting an investigation into identity theft and fraud in cyber crimes involve utilizing tools to identify suspects, monitoring their activities, and collecting evidence to construct a case against them. The impact of these crimes can be devastating, leading to significant financial loss and emotional distress for victims.

Data Breaches and Network Intrusion

Data breaches and network intrusions involve unauthorized access to sensitive information, often resulting in significant financial and reputational damage. Prevalent techniques employed in data breaches and network intrusions include:

  • Phishing
  • Brute force attacks
  • Malware
  • Stolen information
  • Ransomware
  • Password guessing
  • Recording keystrokes
  • Social engineering
  • Exploiting weak credentials and application vulnerabilities
  • Data breaches and network intrusions can have significant consequences for businesses, including:
  • Disruptions
  • Damage to reputation
  • Financial losses
  • Increased cybersecurity expenses
  • The responsibility to inform affected parties

Individuals are at risk of identity theft as their sensitive personal information, such as social security numbers and banking details, may be exposed. Learn more about protecting this information in our article Combatting Data and Credential Exposure With Intelligence.

Social Media and Online Scams

Social media and online scams exploit users’ trust and personal information, leading to various forms of cyber crime. These scams encompass:

Cybercriminals employ psychological strategies such as building rapport, exploiting emotions, using social engineering techniques, and presenting legitimate sounding cryptocoins and platforms to establish trust. Personal data is misused in social media and online scams through techniques such as data mining for identity theft, exploiting privacy setting loopholes, and gathering private information to perpetrate financially motivated scams. Cybercriminals employ a range of techniques to deceive individuals on social media platforms, such as social engineering, phishing, tailgating, angler phishing, creating fake URLs, cloning websites, and executing messenger scams on platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.

Prevention and Response Strategies

Although the risk of cyber crime might appear overwhelming, it’s not entirely bleak. There are strategies that can be employed to prevent and respond to cyber crime. These include implementing security measures, developing an incident response plan, and educating stakeholders.

Key steps involved in Incident Response Planning in Cyber Security typically include preparation and prevention, detection and analysis, containment, eradication, and recovery.

Security Measures and Best Practices

Implementing security measures and following best practices can help protect against cyber crime. Recommended security measures include:

  • Enabling multi factor authentication
  • Regularly updating software
  • Exercising caution when clicking on links or downloading attachments
  • Monitoring network traffic and user activities
  • Utilizing firewalls
  • Implementing access control mechanisms
  • Employing encryption
  • Providing security training for employees
  • Safeguarding information, computers, and networks from cyber attacks
  • Using password managers
  • Installing encryption software
  • Being cautious of suspicious emails
  • Restricting access to critical data
  • Regularly backing up data.

In addition to these measures, updating software is crucial for cybersecurity as it aids in reducing security vulnerabilities, ensuring the security of devices, and addressing security flaws through patches.

Firewalls also play an important role in cybersecurity, filtering and blocking unauthorized access to a network, thereby preventing potential hackers from accessing private data.

Incident Response Planning

Developing a comprehensive incident response plan is crucial for organizations to effectively respond to and recover from cyber attacks. The essential elements of a successful incident response plan for cyber attacks comprise preparation, detection and analysis, containment, eradication, and recovery.

Furthermore, it should encompass a clear mission and goals, roles and responsibilities of the incident response team, and documentation of preparation for cyberthreats.

Establishing an incident response team involves:

  • Assembling individuals with the appropriate expertise and skill sets, encompassing both technical (usually part of red teams and blue teams) and non-technical proficiencies
  • Clearly outlining roles and responsibilities
  • Offering essential training and resources
  • Conducting routine exercises and training
  • Developing tailored communication protocols for various stakeholders
  • Implementing effective information sharing channels
  • These steps are crucial for creating an effective incident response team.

Educating Stakeholders

Education is a powerful tool in the fight against cyber crime. Here are some reasons why educating stakeholders, such as employees and consumers, about cyber threats and prevention strategies is essential:

  • It reduces the risk of cyber crime by empowering individuals to make informed decisions and take proactive measures to protect themselves and the organization.
  • It helps to reduce human error, which is often a major factor in cyber attacks.
  • It improves overall cyber resilience by creating a culture of security awareness and vigilance.

By investing in threat intelligence education and training, organizations can significantly enhance their ability to prevent and respond to cyber threats.

Educating consumers about prevalent cyber crimes and their preventive measures can be achieved through various best practices such as:

  • Enabling automatic software updates
  • Maintaining skepticism towards suspicious emails, links, and attachments
  • Employing strong and unique passwords
  • Activating multi-factor authentication
  • Exercising caution before interacting with unfamiliar links or disclosing personal information online
  • These measures play a crucial role in safeguarding consumers against cybercrime.

The Role of Cyber Crime Reporting Platforms

Cyber crime reporting platforms are instrumental in assisting victims and streamlining investigations. These platforms, such as the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), serve as a central hub for reporting cyber crime and offering assistance.

They analyze victim reports to identify patterns and methods of cyber crimes, ultimately aiding victims in comprehending their experiences and ensuring their complaints contribute to broader preventive measures.

Submitting Complaints to IC3

If you have fallen prey to a cyber crime, IC3 accepts complaint submissions. The procedure involves filing it through their website, where it will be processed and potentially referred to law enforcement agencies. When filing a complaint, it is essential to provide specific details such as:

  • The identity of the complainant
  • Victim details
  • Financial transaction(s)
  • A comprehensive description of the incident
  • Pertinent information about the involved subject(s)

Those who prefer to remain anonymous have the option to withhold personal details such as their name and contact information.

Once a complaint is submitted, it undergoes a thorough review by an analyst before being forwarded to the relevant law enforcement or regulatory agencies for potential investigation.

This ensures that each complaint is given the attention it deserves, and that relevant agencies are alerted to the issue.

Analysis and Referral

Once submitted, a complaint to IC3 proceeds to the analysis stage. At this stage, highly trained analysts review and research the complaints, and then share the information with law enforcement agencies. The IC3 determines the appropriate law enforcement agency for referral by sending the complaints, along with their analyses, to FBI field offices or other federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies for further investigation.

This referral process ensures that each complaint is directed to the most appropriate agency, maximizing the chances of a successful investigation and potential prosecution of the cyber criminals involved.

Supporting Victims

Apart from expediting investigations, cyber crime reporting platforms also significantly aid victims. Organizations such as the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), the Cyber Helpline, and the Cybercrime Support Network (CSN) provide resources and assistance to victims. This can include providing expert assistance at no cost, offering supplementary support, and directing victims of identity theft to report the crime to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) through

These platforms serve as a lifeline for victims, providing them with the resources, guidance, and assistance they need to navigate the aftermath of a cyber crime. They ensure that victims are not alone in their fight against cyber crime, offering support and assistance every step of the way.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is cyber crime investigation?

Cyber crime investigation involves identifying, analyzing, and mitigating computer-based crimes and malicious activity in cyberspace.

What steps do investigators take to investigate a cybercrime?

Investigators take steps such as recovering file systems of hacked computers, acquiring data as evidence, writing reports, and testifying in court. The investigative methods involve phases like initial investigation, planning, information gathering, interviewing, technical review, forensic investigation, and court presentation.

What do cybercrime detectives or cybercrime investigators do?

Cybercrime detectives (or cybercrime investigators) are responsible for investigating and analyzing cybercrime incidents, such as hacking, identity theft, fraud, and other types of cyber-related crimes, with the objective of identifying culprits and gathering evidence for prosecution.

Who are the main law enforcement agencies involved in cyber crime investigations?

The main law enforcement agencies involved in cyber crime investigations include the FBI, Europol, Interpol, and national law enforcement agencies. These organizations work together to combat cyber crime and ensure cyber security.


Nowadays, understanding the intricacies of cyber crime investigations is more important than ever. From the investigative process to the key players, tools, and techniques involved, we’ve covered the world of cyber crime investigations.

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Esteban Borges
Esteban Borges

Esteban is a seasoned security researcher and IT professional with over 20 years of experience, specializing in hardening systems and networks, leading blue team operations, and conducting thorough attack surface analysis to bolster cybersecurity defenses. He's also a skilled marketing expert, specializing in content strategy, technical SEO, and conversion rate optimization. His career includes roles as Security Researcher and Head of Marketing at SecurityTrails, before joining the team at Recorded Future.